French Application of International Rules to Cyberwarfare

Cyber attackers and associated developers of software are “legitimate targets of military engagement.”

The following example of combatants involved in a conflict are specifically listed as constituting legitimate targets of military engagement:

  • hacking of a military system of a party to armed conflict for intelligence purpose,
  • directly useful in the conflict,
  • installing malicious code,
  • building a botnet to launch a denial of service attacks,
  • developing software for the specific use in later hostile acts (cyberattacks).


via French application of international rules to cyberwarfare